Evaluación de compuestos tóxicos: plaguicidas órganoclorados y metales pesados en suelos agrícolas del distrito de riego de Repelón - Atlántico
Cervantes Fuentes, Duvan Salomón
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Citar con el siguiente link: http://hdl.handle.net/11323/236
AbstractDuring the second half of twentieth century, Repelón was known as the main agricultural source in the Atlántico department. A town, which like most of the country at that time, had cultivation as the motor of its development, standing out the cotton, tomato and fruit crops in general, as well as having an irrigation district that supplied the fields of water throughout the year. Several factors slowly undermined the agricultural production on region, increasing the use of fertilizers to maintain the production level and pesticides to keep out plagues in order to ensure food security. These, caused the deposition of toxic compounds such as organochlorides in Repelon soils, which at that time they were used freely on cotton crops and poorly regulated. The presence of these noxious compounds on soils might become a serious risk for the productive purpose of soil, from economic, sanitary and environmental perspective. Considering the above, concentrations of toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides, (Heptachlor Benzene, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, Endrin) were analyzed by Gas Chromatography. Otherwise, concentrations of heavy metals (Mercury, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Copper, Chrome and Cadmium), were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Samples were taken from agricultural soils belonging to the irrigation district of Repelon, at the south region of Atlantico department, in Colombia. Through this study area, it was used a random sampling in zigzag which started with the location of ten sampling points with historical intensive agricultural production. For every heavy metal that was analyzed, excluding Cadmium, they were found analytically detectable concentrations (greater than the detection limit of 0.01 mg/kg). However, pesticides concentrations found were not quantitative values, because they were below the detection rate of analytical technique (2 . The pollution degree of heavy metals was established through the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and Enrichment Factors (EF). In the case of Copper, moderate enrichment was found in all points, whereas Chromium showed a minimal enrichment in points 5, 7 and 8, and moderate enrichment in the other analyzed points, while other metals presented minimal enrichment at all points. On the other hand, the Geoaccumulation Index showed that the soil was moderately polluted with Copper at all points as well as with Chromium excepting points 3 and 4. For Zinc, just point 9 is moderately polluted and rest of the samples are little polluted. In the case of Nickel, only point 3 is not polluted, while the others are little polluted. Surprisingly, the soils are not polluted either with Mercury, Lead or Cadmium. Finally, presented results prove that heavy metals requiring more attention in Repelón irrigation district are Chromium and Copper due to their irregular concentrations in some zones, deducing a common source of pollution which requires further studies to establish its causes. Additionally, although the concentration from the other metals was low, it must be correlated with environmental factors and physicochemical characteristics of the soil to define its potential toxicity as well as the impacts on human health.