|dcterms.references||1 GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional,
and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death,
1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease
Study 2016. Lancet 2017; 390: 1151–210.
2 GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national
comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and
occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a
systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
Lancet 2017; 390: 1345–422.
3 GBD 2016 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence
Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence,
and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for
195 countries, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden
of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017; 390: 1211–59.
4 GBD 2016 DALYs and HALE Collaborators. Global, regional, and
national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and
injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and
territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden
of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017; 390: 1260–344.
5 Murray CJ, Lopez AD. On the comparable quantification of health
risks: lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study.
Epidemiology 1999; 10: 594–605.
6 Stevens GA, Alkema L, Black RE, et al. Guidelines for accurate and
transparent health estimates reporting: the GATHER statement.
Lancet 2016; 388: e19–23.
7 Das Gupta P. Standardization and decomposition of rates: a user’s
manual. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, 1993.
publications/1993/demo/p23-186.pdf (accessed Aug 31, 2018).
8 Rajagopalan S, Brook RD. Air pollution and type 2 diabetes:
mechanistic insights. Diabetes 2012; 61: 3037–45.
9 Shaddick G, Thomas ML, Green A, et al. Data integration model for
air quality: a hierarchical approach to the global estimation of
exposures to ambient air pollution. J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat 2017;
10 Farvid MS, Ding M, Pan A, et al. Dietary linoleic acid and risk of
coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of
prospective cohort studies. Circulation 2014; 130: 1568–78.
11 Yang WS, Va P, Bray F, et al. The role of pre-existing diabetes
mellitus on hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence and prognosis:
a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One 2011;
12 Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, et al. Blood pressure and
incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy
life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1·25 million people.
Lancet 2014; 383: 1899–911.
13 Murray-Kolb LE. CHERG iron report: maternal mortality, child
mortality, perinatal mortality, child cognition, and estimates of
prevalence of anemia due to iron deficiency. Baltimore: CHERG,
2012. http://cherg.org/publications/iron-report.pdf (accessed
Aug 31, 2018).
14 Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the
concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma,
without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;
15 Singh GM, Danaei G, Farzadfar F, et al. The age-specific
quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular
diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis. PLoS One 2013; 8: e65174.
16 WHO. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2017. Geneva:
World Health Organization, July 19, 2017. http://www.who.int/
tobacco/global_report/2017/en/ (accessed Aug 31, 2018).
17 Abegunde DO, Mathers CD, Adam T, Ortegon M, Strong K.
The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and
middle-income countries. Lancet 2007; 370: 1929–38.
18 Prabhakaran D, Anand S, Watkins D, et al. Cardiovascular,
respiratory, and related disorders: key messages from disease
control priorities. Lancet 2018; 391: 1224–36.
19 Tian M, Ajay VS, Dunzhu D, et al. A cluster-randomized controlled
trial of a simplified multifaceted management program for
individuals at high cardiovascular risk (SimCard Trial) in rural
Tibet, China, and Haryana, India. Circulation 2015; 132: 815–24.
20 Webster R, Salam A, de Silva HA, et al. Fixed low-dose triple
combination antihypertensive medication vs usual care for blood
pressure control in patients with mild to moderate hypertension in
Sri Lanka: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2018; 320: 566–79.
21 Yusuf S, Bosch J, Dagenais G, et al. Cholesterol lowering in
intermediate-risk persons without cardiovascular disease.
N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 2021–31.
22 Singh K, Chandrasekaran AM, Bhaumik S, et al. Cost-effectiveness
of interventions to control cardiovascular diseases and diabetes
mellitus in South Asia: a systematic review. BMJ Open 2018;
23 Frieden TR, Bloomberg MR. Saving an additional 100 million lives.
Lancet 2018; 391: 709–12.
24 GBD 2017 DALYs and HALE collaborators. Global, regional,
and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases
and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries
and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global
Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018; 392: 1859–922.
25 Scott JG, Moore SE, Sly PD, Norman RE. Bullying in children and
adolescents: a modifiable risk factor for mental illness.
Aust NZ J Psychiatry 2014; 48: 209–12.
26 Moore SE, Norman RE, Suetani S, Thomas HJ, Sly PD, Scott JG.
Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and
adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
World J Psychiatry 2017; 7: 60–76.
27 Menesini E, Salmivalli C. Bullying in schools: the state of
knowledge and effective interventions. Psychol Health Med 2017;
22 (suppl 1): 240–53.
28 Chaloupka FJ, Yurekli A, Fong GT. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco
control strategy. Tob Control 2012; 21: 172–80.
29 Health Effects Institute. State of global air 2018. A special report on
global exposure to air pollution and its disease burden. Boston:
Health Effects Institute, 2018. https://www.stateofglobalair.org/
sites/default/files/soga-2018-report.pdf (accessed Aug 31, 2018).
30 WHO. Global and regional estimates of violence against women:
prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and
non-partner sexual violence. Geneva: World Health Organization,
violence/9789241564625/en/ (accessed Aug 31, 2018).
31 WHO, UNICEF. Progress on drinking water, sanitation and
reports/2018-01/JMP-2017-report-final.pdf (accessed Aug 31, 2018).
32 WHO, UNICEF. Joint Monitoring Programme methodology 2017
update and SDG baselines. https://washdata.org/sites/default/files/
(accessed Aug 31, 2018).
33 Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJ, et al. Breastfeeding in the 21st
century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.
Lancet 2016; 387: 475–90.
34 Fewtrell LJ, Prüss-Üstün A, Landrigan P, Ayuso-Mateos JL.
Estimating the global burden of disease of mild mental retardation
and cardiovascular diseases from environmental lead exposure.
Environ Res 2004; 94: 120–33.
35 Bilano V, Gilmour S, Moffiet T, et al. Global trends and projections
for tobacco use, 1990–2025: an analysis of smoking indicators from
the WHO comprehensive information systems for tobacco control.
Lancet 2015; 385: 966–76.
36 UNICEF, WHO, World Bank. Joint child malnutrition estimates—
levels and trends (2017 edition). Geneva: World Health Organization,
(accessed May 24, 2018).
37 Wardlaw TM, Blanc A, Zupan J, Åhman E. Low birthweight:
country, regional and global estimates. New York: UNICEF, 2004.
EY.pdf (accessed Aug 31, 2018).
38 Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, et al. Global prevalence of chronic
kidney disease—a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One
2016; 11: e0158765.
39 Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard MZ, et al. National, regional,
and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010
with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic
analysis and implications. Lancet 2012; 379: 2162–72.
40 Petry N, Olofin I, Hurrell RF, et al. The proportion of anemia
associated with iron deficiency in low, medium, and high human
development index countries: a systematic analysis of national
surveys. Nutrients 2016; 8: E693.
41 Steenland K. Excess deaths due to occupation. Occup Environ Med
2016; 73: 497–98.
42 Takala J, Hämäläinen P, Saarela KL, et al. Global estimates of the
burden of injury and illness at work in 2012. J Occup Environ Hyg
2014; 11: 326–37.
43 Rushton L, Hutchings SJ, Fortunato L, et al. Occupational cancer
burden in Great Britain. Br J Cancer 2012; 107 (suppl 1): S3–7.
44 American Institute for Cancer Research, World Cancer Research
Fund. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of
cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute
for Cancer Research, 2007. http://www.aicr.org/assets/docs/pdf/
reports/Second_Expert_Report.pdf (accessed Aug 31, 2018).
45 Gasparrini A, Guo Y, Hashizume M, et al. Mortality risk attributable
to high and low ambient temperature: a multicountry observational
study. Lancet 2015; 386: 369–75.||spa