|dcterms.references||1 UN. Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable
development. New York, NY: United Nations, 2015.
2 WHO. WHA 71.1 Thirteenth General Programme of Work,
2019–23. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2018.
3 WHO. Draft Thirteenth General Programme of Work 2019–23.
Geneva: World Health Organization, 2018.
4 Bertelsmann Stiftung, Sustainable Development Solutions
Network. SDG Index and Dashboards Report 2018.
Global responsibilities: implementing the goals. 2018. http://www.
EDITION%20WEB%20V8%20060718.pdf (accessed Aug 7, 2018).
5 Nishtar S, Niinistö S, Sirisena M, et al. Time to deliver: report of the
WHO Independent High-Level Commission on NCDs. Lancet 2018;
6 WHO. Time to deliver: report of the WHO Independent High-level
Commission on Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva:
World Health Organization, 2018. http://apps.who.int/iris/
(accessed June 5, 2018).
7 UN General Assembly. Political declaration of the high-level
meeting of the General Assembly on the prevention and control of
non-communicable diseases. New York, NY: United Nations, 2012.
declaration_en.pdf (accessed May 17, 2018).
8 WHO Independent High-level Commission on NCDs. Think piece:
why is 2018 a strategically important year for NCDs? Geneva:
World Health Organization, 2018. http://www.who.int/ncds/
governance/high-level-commission/why-2018-important-year-forNCDs.pdf?ua=1 (accessed May 17, 2018).
9 Horton R, Sargent J. 2018 must be the year for action against NCDs.
Lancet 2018; 391: 1971–73.
10 GBD 2015 SDG Collaborators. Measuring the health-related
Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis
from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2016;
11 GBD 2016 SDG Collaborators. Measuring progress and projecting
attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related
Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from
the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017;
12 Gómez-Dantés H, Fullman N, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, et al.
Dissonant health transition in the states of Mexico, 1990–2013:
a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
Lancet 2016; 388: 2386–402.
13 Nomura S, Sakamoto H, Glenn S, et al. Population health and
regional variations of disease burden in Japan, 1990–2015:
a systematic subnational analysis for the Global Burden of Disease
Study 2015. Lancet 2017; 390: 1521–38.
14 India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Collaborators.
Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition
across the states of India, 1990–2016 in the Global Burden of
Disease Study. Lancet 2017; 390: 2437–60.
15 US Burden of Disease Collaborators. The state of US health,
1990–2016: burden of disease, injuries, and risk factors among US
states. JAMA 2018; 319: 1444–72.
16 Newton JN, Briggs ADM, Murray CJL, et al. Changes in health in
England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation,
1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease
Study 2013. Lancet 2015; 386: 2257–74.
17 Patole M. Localization of SDGs through disaggregation of KPIs.
Economies 2018; 6: 15
18 Lucci P. “Localising” the post-2015 agenda: what does it mean in
practice? London: Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
19 GBD 2017 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional,
and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural,
environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of
risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic
analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018;
20 UN. Data availability of minimum disaggregation: disaggregation
required by metadata. New York, NY: United Nations, 2018.
21 GBD 2017 Cause of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and
national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195
countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the
Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018; 392: 1736–88.
22 GBD 2017 Population and Fertility Collaborators. Population size
and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries, 1950–2017:
a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.
Lancet 2018; 392: 1995–2051.
23 GBD 2017 Mortality Collaborators. Global, regional, and national
age-sex-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1950–2017:
a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.
Lancet 2018; 392: 1684–735.
24 GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence
Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence,
and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for
195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for
the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018;
25 GBD 2017 DALYs and HALE Collaborators. Global, regional, and
national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and
injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and
territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden
of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018; 392: 1859–922.
26 Foreman KJ, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJ. Modeling causes of
death: an integrated approach using CODEm.
Popul Health Metr 2012; 10: 1.
27 Flaxman AD, Vos T, Murray CJ. An integrative metaregression
framework for descriptive epidemiology. Seattle, WA: University of
Washington Press, 2015.
28 Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, et al. Smoking prevalence and
cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980–2012. JAMA 2014;
29 Stevens GA, Alkema L, Black RE, et al. Guidelines for Accurate and
Transparent Health Estimates Reporting: the GATHER statement.
Lancet 2016; 388: e19–23.
30 Statistical Commission. Report of the Inter-Agency and Expert
Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators. New York, NY:
United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2018. https://unstats.
un.org/unsd/statcom/49th-session/documents/2018-2-SDGIAEG-E.pdf (accessed June 5, 2018).
31 UN Statistical Commission. Report on the forty-ninth session
(6–9 March 2018). New York, NY: United Nations Economic and
Social Council, 2018. https://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/49thsession/documents/Report-on-the-49th-session-E.pdf
(accessed June 5, 2018).
32 GBD 2016 Healthcare Access and Quality Collaborators. Measuring
performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for
195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations:
a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study
2016. Lancet 2018; 391: 2236–71.
33 Foreman KJ, Marquez N, Dolgert A, et al. Forecasting life expectancy,
years of life lost, all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 250 causes
of death: reference and alternative scenarios 2016–40 for 195 countries
and territories. Lancet 2018; published online October 16.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31694-5 (accessed Oct 17, 2018).
34 Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network.
Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health
spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016–40.
Lancet 2018; 391: 1783–98.
35 Rezaeian M. Suicide among young Middle Eastern Muslim females.
Crisis 2010; 31: 36–42.
36 UN General Assembly. A/RES/71/313: work of the Statistical
Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development. New York, NY: United Nations, 2017. https://undocs.
org/A/RES/71/313 (accessed Aug 7, 2018).
37 GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators.
Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality,
and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015:
a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.
Lancet 2016; 388: 1459–544.
38 Pritchard C, Amanullah S. An analysis of suicide and undetermined
deaths in 17 predominantly Islamic countries contrasted with the
UK. Psychol Med 2007; 37: 421–30.
39 Mendis S. The contribution of the Framingham Heart Study to the
prevention of cardiovascular disease: a global perspective.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2010; 53: 10–14.
40 Yusuf S, Wood D, Ralston J, Reddy KS. The World Heart
Federation’s vision for worldwide cardiovascular disease prevention.
Lancet 2015; 386: 399–402.
41 WHO. Global action plan for the prevention and control of NCDs
2013–20. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013.
42 World Economic Forum, WHO. From burden to “best buys”:
reducing the economic impact of non-communicable diseases in
low- and middle-income countries. Geneva: World Economic
Forum, 2011. http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/best_buys_
summary.pdf (accessed Aug 7, 2018).
43 Engelgau M, Rosenhouse S, El-Saharty S, Mahal A. The economic
effect of noncommunicable diseases on households and nations:
a review of existing evidence. J Health Commun 2011; 16: 75–81.
44 Alwan A, MacLean DR, Riley LM, et al. Monitoring and surveillance
of chronic non-communicable diseases: progress and capacity in
high-burden countries. Lancet 2010; 376: 1861–68.
45 Nyaaba GN, Stronks K, de-Graft Aikins A, Kengne AP, Agyemang C.
Tracing Africa’s progress towards implementing the
Non-Communicable Diseases Global action plan 2013–20: a synthesis
of WHO country profile reports. BMC Public Health 2017; 17: 297.
46 Stuckler D, McKee M, Ebrahim S, Basu S. Manufacturing
epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption
of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol,
and tobacco. PLoS Med 2012; 9: e1001235.
47 Kickbusch I, Allen L, Franz C. The commercial determinants of
health. Lancet Glob Health 2016; 4: e895–96.
48 WHO. Working together for health: the World Health Report 2006.
Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006.
49 García-Moreno C, Amin A. The sustainable development goals,
violence and women’s and children’s health.
Bull World Health Organ 2016; 94: 396–97.
50 University College London Centre for Gender and Global Health.
The Global Health 50/50 report 2018. London: University College
London, 2018. https://globalhealth5050.org/wp-content/
(accessed May 17, 2018).
51 Roth GA, Johnson C, Abajobir A, et al. Global, regional, and
national burden of cardiovascular diseases for 10 causes, 1990 to
2015. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70: 1–25.
52 Horton KC, MacPherson P, Houben RMGJ, White RG, Corbett EL.
Sex differences in tuberculosis burden and notifications in low- and
middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS Med 2016; 13: e1002119.
53 Hegdahl HK, Fylkesnes KM, Sandøy IF. Sex differences in HIV
prevalence persist over time: evidence from 18 countries in
sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0148502.
54 Santamariña-Rubio E, Pérez K, Olabarria M, Novoa AM.
Gender differences in road traffic injury rate using time travelled as
a measure of exposure. Accid Anal Prev 2014; 65: 1–7.
55 Rockett I. The gender suicide gap and differential misclassification:
a research autobiography. Int Rev Mod Sociol 2017; 43: 5–32.
56 Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M, et al. Methods of suicide:
international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality
database. Bull World Health Organ 2008; 86: 726–32.
57 Annandale E, Hunt K, editors. Gender inequalities in health.
Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000.
58 GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators. Alcohol use and burden for
195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for
the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2018; 392: 1015–35.
59 GBD 2015 Tobacco Collaborators. Smoking prevalence and
attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories,
1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease
Study 2015. Lancet 2017; 389: 1885–906.
60 Jernigan DH, Babor TF. The concentration of the global alcohol
industry and its penetration in the African region: alcohol industry
penetration in Africa. Addiction 2015; 110: 551–60.
61 Prasad R. Alcohol use on the rise in India. Lancet 2009; 373: 17–18.
62 Ferreira-Borges C, Esser MB, Dias S, Babor T, Parry CDH.
Alcohol control policies in 46 African countries: opportunities for
improvement. Alcohol Alcohol 2015; 50: 470–76.
63 Brand DA, Saisana M, Rynn LA, Pennoni F, Lowenfels AB.
Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.
PLoS Med 2007; 4: e151.
64 Amos A, Greaves L, Nichter M, Bloch M. Women and tobacco:
a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and
practice. Tob Control 2012; 21: 236–43.
65 Torchalla I, Okoli CTC, Bottorff JL, Qu A, Poole N, Greaves L.
Smoking cessation programs targeted to women: a systematic
review. Women Health 2012; 52: 32–54.
66 Bottorff JL, Haines-Saah R, Kelly MT, et al. Gender, smoking and
tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.
Int J Equity Health 2014; 13: 114.
67 Wilsnack RW, Vogeltanz ND, Wilsnack SC, Harris TR.
Gender differences in alcohol consumption and adverse drinking
consequences: cross-cultural patterns. Addiction 2000; 95: 251–65.
68 Nolen-Hoeksema S, Hilt L. Possible contributors to the gender
differences in alcohol use and problems. J Gen Psychol 2006;
69 Secretariat of Government of the Presidency of the Republic,
Ministry of Planning, Development, and Management.
Voluntary national review on the Sustainable Development Goals.
Brazil 2017. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/
documents/15806Brazil_English.pdf (accessed June 8, 2018).
70 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The 2017 voluntary
national reviews on SDGs of Ethiopia: government commitments,
national ownership and performance trends. Addis Ababa:
National Plan Commission, 2017. https://sustainabledevelopment.
(accessed June 8, 2018).
71 Government of India. Voluntary national review report on the
implementation of Sustainable Development Goals. New Delhi:
Government of India, 2017. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/
content/documents/16693India.pdf (accessed June 8, 2018).
72 SDGs Promotion Headquarters. Japan’s voluntary national
review report on the implementation of the Sustainable
Development Goals. Tokyo: Government of Japan, 2017.
16445JapanVNR2017.pdf (accessed June 8, 2018).
73 Government of Mexico. Reporte Nacional para la Revisión
Voluntaria de México en el Marco del Foro Político de Alto Nivel
Sobre Desarrollo Sostenible. Mexico City: Government of Mexico,
2016%20FINAL.pdf (accessed June 8, 2018).
74 Ministry of Devolution and Planning. Implementation of the
agenda 2030 for sustainable development in Kenya. Nairobi:
Government of Kenya, 2017. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.
org/content/documents/15689Kenya.pdf (accessed June 8, 2018).
75 Ministry of National Development and Planning. Voluntary national
review (VNR): eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a
changing world. Jakarta: Government of Indonesia, 2017.
15705Indonesia.pdf (accessed June 8, 2018).
76 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Sustainable
Development Knowledge Platform. Voluntary national reviews
database. 2018. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/vnrs
(accessed June 8, 2018).
77 Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network.
Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and
development assistance in 188 countries, 1995–2015. Lancet 2018;
78 Bekker L-G, Alleyne G, Baral S, et al. Advancing global health and
strengthening the HIV response in the era of the Sustainable
Development Goals: the International AIDS Society—Lancet
Commission. Lancet 2018; 392: 312–58.
79 WHO. World health statistics 2018: monitoring health for the
SDGs. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2018. http://apps.who.
pdf?ua=1 (accessed May 18, 2018).
80 World Bank. Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018: from
World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: The World Bank,
81 Bertelsmann Stiftung, Sustainable Development Solutions
Network. SDG Index and Dashboards Report 2017. Global
responsibilities: international spillovers in achieving the goals. 2017.
http://www.sdgindex.org/assets/files/2017/2017-sdg-index-anddashboards-report--full.pdf (accessed Oct 17, 2018).
82 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division.
SDG indicators: metadata repository. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/
metadata (accessed June 12, 2018).
83 Boerma T, Eozenou P, Evans D, Evans T, Kieny M-P, Wagstaff A.
Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country
and global levels. PLoS Med 2014; 11: e1001731.||spa