Purine And Pyrimidine Salvage Pathway In Thermophiles: A Valuable Source Of Biocatalysts For The Industrial Production Of Nucleic Acid Derivatives
Del Arco, Jon
Fernandez Lucas, Jesus
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AbstractDue to their similarity to natural counterparts, nucleic acid derivatives (nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides, among others) are interesting molecules for pharmaceutical, biomedical, or food industries. For this reason, there is increasing worldwide demand for the development of efficient synthetic processes for these compounds. Chemical synthetic methodologies require numerous protection-deprotection steps and often lead to the presence of undesirable by-products or enantiomeric mixtures. These methods also require harsh operating conditions, such as the use of organic solvents and hazard reagents. Conversely, enzymatic production by whole cells or enzymes improves regio-, stereo-, and enantioselectivity and provides an eco-friendly alternative. Because of their essential role in purine and pyrimidine scavenging, enzymes from purine and pyrimidine salvage pathways are valuable candidates for the synthesis of many different nucleic acid components. In recent years, many different enzymes from these routes, such as nucleoside phosphorylases, nucleoside kinases, 2′-deoxyribosyltransferases, phosphoribosyl transferases, or deaminases, have been successfully employed as biocatalysts in the production of nucleobase, nucleoside, or nucleotide analogs. Due to their great activity and stability at extremely high temperatures, the use of enzymes from thermophiles in industrial biocatalysis is gaining momentum. Thermophilic enzymes not only display unique characteristics such as temperature, chemical, and pH stability but also provide many different advantages from an industrial perspective. This mini-review aims to cover the most representative enzymatic approaches for the synthesis of nucleic acid derivatives. In this regard, we provide detailed comments about enzymes involved in crucial steps of purine and pyrimidine salvage pathways in thermophiles, as well as their biological role, biochemical characterization, active site mechanism, and substrate specificity. In addition, the most interesting synthetic examples reported in the literature are also included.