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dc.creatorJiménez, Manuel
dc.creatorAlvero Cruz, José Ramón
dc.creatorSolla, Juan
dc.creatorGarcía-Bastida, Jorge
dc.creatorGarcía-Coll, Virginia
dc.creatorRivilla, Iván
dc.creatorRuiz, Enrique
dc.creatorGarcía-Romero, Jerónimo
dc.creatorCarnero, Elvis A.
dc.creatorClemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier
dc.description.abstractThis study aimed to analyze the modulating effect of competition seriousness and competition level in the testosterone and cortisol responses in professional soccer player. Ninety five (95) soccer players were included in this study (professional, n = 39; semiprofessional, n = 27; amateur, n = 29) before and after training, friendly game and official games. Repeated measures ANOVA showed higher testosterone levels (F(1,89) = 134, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.75) in professional soccer players, when compared with semiprofessional (p < 0.0001) or amateur athletes (p < 0.0001). After winning a competition game an increase in testosterone levels was observed in professionals (t = −3.456, p < 0.001), semiprofessionals (t = −4.400, p < 0.0001), and amateurs (t = −2.835, p < 0.009). In contrast, this momentary hormonal fluctuation was not observed after winning a friendly game or during a regular training day. Additionally, statistical analysis indicated that cortisol levels were lower in professional (t = −3.456, p < 0.001) and semiprofessional athletes (t = −4.400, p < 0.0001) than in amateurs (t = −2.835, p < 0.009). In soccer players a rise in testosterone was only observable when the team was faced with an actual challenge but did not support a different response between categories. Thus, the desire to achieve a goal (and keep the social status) may be one of the key reasons why testosterone levels rise promptly. Conversely, testosterone did not change after friendly games, which suggests these situations are not real goals and the players do not perceive an actual threat (in terms of dominance) more than the preparation for their next competitive
dc.publisherInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthspa
dc.rightsCC0 1.0 Universal*
dc.subjectCompetitive behaviourspa
dc.subjectWinner effectspa
dc.subjectSocial dominancespa
dc.titleCompetition seriousness and competition level Modulate testosterone and cortisol responses in soccer playersspa
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