Evaluación de la biodiversidad fúngica en suelos de la reserva natural banco totumo - Bijibana (municipio de Repelón) y el humedal el Limón (corregimiento de las Compuertas-municipio de Manatí) en el departamento del Atlántico.
Castiblanco Marielena, Duran
William Gustavo, Zapata Herazo
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AbstractSoil is the most important basic natural resource for supporting agricultural production systems and maintaining productivity in these ecosystems depends on their physicochemical and biological characteristics. However, this resource is very sensitive to alterations. This research provides information on the fungal biodiversity of two soils in the Atlántico department: Reserva Natural Banco Totumo-Bijibana (municipality of Repelón) and the Humedal El Limón (Las Compuertas district – municipality of Manatí). As well as, on the effects that land uses may have due to natural and anthropic disasters on microbial activity and soil fertility. For this, soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-10 and 0-30 cm to evaluate the biodiversity of microfungal and physicochemical parameters, respectively. In addition, the ecological diversity rates Chao 1, ACE, Simpson, Shannon-Weaver were calculated and eventually a species accumulation curve was made. Physicochemically, the predominant color of the soil of the Banco Totumo-Bijibana Nature Reserve was yellow red (7.5YR 2.5 / 1), with a pH that was between slightly acidic (5.5) and neutral (7.0), humidity ranged between 25.61 - 43.45% Three textures were observed in the soil: silty loam, sandy loam and silt. %OM (organic matter) fluctuated from very low (0.03%) to low (2.3%). The N (total nitrogen) was found in the very low range (0%) at very low (0.11%). The P (available phosphorus) was high >30 mg/Kg, CEC (cation exchange capacity) >40 meq/100g was high too and salinity (0.754 ppm) has negligible effects. On the other hand, the soil of the Humedal El Limón showed a yellowish brown color dark (10YR 4/4YR), pH between slightly acid (5.5) to neutral (7.0) in four samples, the other were below this range (4.63 - 5.41) those were very acid, moisture presented variations in a range of 5.91 - 19.12%, the texture of the soil was slimy for all samples collected. The %OM was low (0.6 - 1.5%). The N presented an interval between very low (0%) and very high (0.37%). The P was high (> 30mg/Kg), CEC (> 40meq/100g) was high too, and the salinity (0.1458 ppm) has negligible effects. On the other hand, the biodiversity of microfungal indicated that the predominant genus in the soils studied was Aspergillus; where, for the Reserva Natural Banco Totumo-Bijibana, 4 of the 54 expected species were obtained according to the Chao 1 index, the Shannon-Weaver index denotes an uniformity abundance of 46.74 and, the Simpson index showed a probability of 41.52%; species accumulation curve reached the asymptote according to the number of species found, indicating that the the species accumulation curve reached the asymptote according to the number of species found, which indicates that the observations made were sufficient to exhibit species richness. For the Humedal El Limón, 3 species of the 14 expected according to the Chao 1 index were found, the Simpson index showed a probability of 13.04% and the Shannon-Weaver index noted that uniformity in abundance was 13.46, the asymptote that achieved the species accumulation curve was partial coinciding with the number of species found in microbiological analysis. Finally, in the correlation of soil physicochemical parameters with CFU/g soil, in Reserva Natural Banco Totumo-Bijibana they showed correlation between N and % humidity with the soil microorganisms Aspergillus candidus (Sp1) and Aspergillus clavatus (Sp3). For Humedal El Limón, there was a correlation between %OM and soil microorganisms such as Aspergillus ochraceus (Sp2) and Aspergillus flavus (Sp4). Taking into account the results of the physicochemical parameters of the soil and microfungal isolates, it can be concluded that, the Reserva Natural Banco Totumo-Bijibana (Repelón) is in an optimal state for the growth of plants and microfungal decomposing OM. On the contrary, the soil of the Humedal El Limón (Las Compuertas) does not play an acceptable role for the development of microfungals. However, it promotes the development of plants.