Show simple item record

dc.creatorZielinski, Seweryn
dc.creatorJeong, Yoonjeong
dc.creatorKim, Seong-il
dc.creatorMilanes, Celene B.
dc.date.accessioned2020-07-30T14:42:20Z
dc.date.available2020-07-30T14:42:20Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn2071-1050
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11323/6865
dc.description.abstractRural community tourism initiatives in developed nations share most positive and negative characteristics with community-based tourism (CBT) initiatives in developing nations. They also share many barriers and conditions for tourism development. What makes them different is the context in which they operate. This paper identifies the main conditions that explain these differences through a review of findings from 103 location-specific case studies and other available literature that provides empirical evidence. The paper also explores the usage of the concepts of CBT and rural tourism. The findings are discussed under seven categories: Definitions, socioeconomic and cultural factors, policy and governance, land ownership, community cohesiveness, assimilation of external stakeholders, and type of visitors. It is argued that it is the developing-/developed-nation context, and not objectively established criteria, which largely dictates authors’ narratives with corresponding takes on tourism development and subsequent recommendations. The paper engages in a discussion about case-study research, its weaknesses and tendencies, providing some recommendations on how to increase the contribution of case studies to knowledge, and calls for more research on externally assisted non-Indigenous communitytourism initiatives in developed nations.spa
dc.language.isoengspa
dc.publisherCorporación Universidad de la Costaspa
dc.rightsCC0 1.0 Universal*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/*
dc.sourceSustainabilityspa
dc.subjectCBTspa
dc.subjectRemote areaspa
dc.subjectPeripheralityspa
dc.subjectTourism developmentspa
dc.subjectRural developmentspa
dc.titleWhy community-based tourism and rural tourism in developing and developed nations are treated differently? A reviewspa
dc.typeArticlespa
dcterms.references1. Weaver, D.B. Community-based tourism as strategic dead-end. Tour. Recreat. Res. 2010, 35, 206–208.spa
dcterms.references2. WWF [World Wildlife Fund]. Guidelines for Community-Based Ecotourism Development; WWF International: Gland, Switzerland, 2001.spa
dcterms.references3. Hall, C.M. Tourism: Rethinking the Social Science of Obility; Harlow: Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2005.spa
dcterms.references4. Stronza, A.; Gordillo, J. Community views of ecotourism. Ann. Tour. Res. 2008, 35, 448–468.spa
dcterms.references5. Ashley, C. Facilitating Pro-Poor Tourism with the Private Sector: Lessons Learned from ‘Pro-Poor Tourism Pilots in Southern Africa’; Overseas Development Institute: London, UK, 2005.spa
dcterms.references6. Ashley, C.; Roe, D.; Goodwin, H. Pro-Poor Tourism Strategies: Making Tourism Work for the Poor: A Review of Experience; Overseas Development Institute: London, UK, 2001.spa
dcterms.references7. Asker, S.; Boronyak, L.; Carrard, N.; Paddon, M. Effective Community Based Tourism: A Best Practice Manual; Gold Coast: Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre, Griffith University: Mount Gravatt, Australia, 2010.spa
dcterms.references8. APEIS-RISPO. Asia Pacific Environmental Innovative Strategies-Research on Innovative and Strategic Policy Options. Good Practices Inventory on Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas. APEIS-RISPO: Tokyo, Japan, 2006.spa
dcterms.references9. Baktygulov, S.; Raeva, D. Creating Value for all: Community-Based Tourism; United Nations Development Programme: New York, NY, USA, 2010.spa
dcterms.references10. Bello, F.G.; Carr, N.; Lovelock, B. Community participation framework for protected area-based tourism planning. Tour. Plan. Dev. 2016, 13, 469–485.spa
dcterms.references11. Calanog, L.A.; Reyes, D.P.T.; Eugenio, V.F. Making Ecotourism Work. A Manual on Establishing CommunityBased Ecotourism Enterprise (CBEE) in the Philippines; Japan International Cooperation Agency: Metro Manila, Philippines, 2012.spa
dcterms.references12. CTO. Caribbean Tourism Organization. Competing with the Best: Good Practices in Community-Based Tourism in the Caribbean; CTO: Bridgetown, Barbados, 2007.spa
dcterms.references13. Dixey, L. Inventory and Analysis of Community Based Tourism in Zambia; USAID: Lusaka, Zambia, 2005.spa
dcterms.references14. Hamzah, A.; Khalifah, Z. Handbook on Community Based Tourism: How to Develop and Sustain CBT; AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009.spa
dcterms.references15. InWEnt-Capacity Building International Training Manual for Community-Based Tourism; InWEnt: Bonn, Germany, 2002.spa
dcterms.references16. Mountain Institute Community-Based Tourism for Conservation and Development: A Resource Kit; The Mountain Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2000.spa
dcterms.references17. SNV Netherlands Development Organization. Asia Pro-Poor Sustainable Tourism Network. A Toolkit for Monitoring and Managing Community-Based Ttourism; Griffith University: Gold Coast, Australia, 2007.spa
dcterms.references18. UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organization. Compendium of Best Practices and Recommendations for Ecotourism in Asia and the Pacific; UNWTO: Madrid, Philippines, 2012.spa
dcterms.references19. Goodwin, H.; Santilli, R. Communitybased Tourism: A Success? International Centre for Responsible Tourism; ICRT Occasional Paper; ICRT: Leeds, UK, 2009.spa
dcterms.references20. Armstrong, R. An Analysis of the Conditions for Success of Community Based Tourism Enterprises. In ICRT Occasional Paper; ICRT: Leeds, UK, 2012.spa
dcterms.references21. Blackman, A.; Foster, F.; Hyvonen, T.; Bronwyn, J.; Kuilboer, A.; Moscardo, G. Factors contributing to successful tourism development in peripheral regions. J. Tour. Stud. 2004, 15, 59–70.spa
dcterms.references22. Moscardo, G. Peripheral tourism development: Challenges, issues and success factors. Tour. Recreat. Res. 2005, 30, 27–43.spa
dcterms.references23. Moscardo, G. The role of knowledge in good governance for tourism. In Tourist Destination Governance: Practice, Theory and Issues; Laws, E., Richins, H., Agrusa, J., Scott, N., Eds.; CABI: Wallingford, UK, 2011; pp. 67–80.spa
dcterms.references24. Saufi, A.; O'Brien, D.; Wilkins, H. Inhibitors to host community participation in sustainable tourism development in developing nations. J. Sustain. Tour. 2014, 22, 801–820.spa
dcterms.references25. Wilson, S.; Fesenmaier, D.R.; Fesenmaier, J.; Van Es, J.C. Factors for success in rural tourism development. J. Travel Res. 2001, 40, 132–138.spa
dcterms.references26. Zielinski, S.; Kim, S.I.; Botero, C.M.; Yanes, A. Factors that facilitate and inhibit community-based tourism initiatives in developing nations. Curr. Issues Tour. 2020, 23, 723–739.spa
dcterms.references27. Tosun, C. Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing nations. Tour. Manag. 2000, 21, 613–633.spa
dcterms.references28. Giampiccoli, A.; Jugmohan, S.; Mtapuri, O. Community-based tourism in rich and poor nations: Towards a framework for comparison. Afr. J. Phys. Health Educ. Recreat. Danc. 2015, 21, 1200–1216.spa
dcterms.references29. Dodds, R.; Ali, A. ; Galaski, K. Mobilizing knowledge: Determining key elements for success and pitfalls in developing community-based tourism. Curr. Issues Tour. 2018, 21, 1547–1568.spa
dcterms.references30. Simmons, D.G. Community participation in tourism planning. Tour. Manag. 1994, 15, 98–108.spa
dcterms.references31. Tosun, C. Towards a typology of community participation in the tourism development process. Int. J. Tour. Hosp. 1999, 10, 113–134.spa
dcterms.references32. Manyara, G.; Jones, E. Community-based tourism enterprises development in Kenya: An exploration of their potential as avenues of poverty reduction. J. Sustain. Tour. 2007, 15, 628–644.spa
dcterms.references33. Okazaki, E. A community-based tourism model: Its conception and use. J. Sustain. Tour. 2008, 16, 511– 529.spa
dcterms.references34. Saayman, M.; Giampiccoli, A. Community-based and pro-poor tourism: Initial assessment of their relation to community development. Eur. J. Tour. Res. 2016, 12, 145–190.spa
dcterms.references35. Jugmohan, S.; Steyn, J.N. A pre-condition and evaluation and management model for community-based tourism. Afr. J. Phys. Health Educ. Recreat. Danc. 2015, 21, 1065–1084.spa
dcterms.references36. Mtapuri, O.; Giampiccoli, A. Interrogating the role of the state and nonstate actors in community-based tourism ventures: Toward a model for spreading the benefits to the wider community. S. Afr. Geogr. J. 2013, 95, 1–15.spa
dcterms.references37. Spenceley, A. Local impacts of community-based tourism in Southern Africa. In Responsible Tourism: Critical Issues for Conservation and Development; Spenceley, A., Ed.; Earthscan: London, UK, 2008.spa
dcterms.references38. Peredo, A.M.; Chrisman, J.J. Toward a theory of community-based enterprise. Acad. Manag. Rev. 2006, 31, 309–328.spa
dcterms.references39. Ruiz-Ballesteros, E. Keys for approaching community-based tourism. Gazeta de Antropologia, 2017, 33. Available online: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/44362 (accessed on 16 March 2020).spa
dcterms.references40. Piselli, F. Communities, places, and social networks. Am. Behav. Sci. 2007, 50, 867–878.spa
dcterms.references41. OECD Tourism strategies and rural Development. 1994, Available online: https://www.oecd.org/cfe/tourism/2755218.pdf (accessed on 6 April 2020).spa
dcterms.references42. Beeton, S. Community Development through Tourism; Landlinks Press: Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, 2006.spa
dcterms.references43. Oppermann, M. Rural tourism in Germany: Farm and rural tourism operators. In The Business of Rural Tourism; Page, S.J., Getz, D., Eds.; International Thomson Business Press: London, UK, 1997; pp. 108– 119.spa
dcterms.references44. Priestley, G.K.; Canoves, G.; Segui, M.; Villarino, M. Legislative frameworks for rural tourism: Comparative studies from Spain. In Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business; Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I., Mitchell, M., Eds.; Channel View: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2005; pp. 63–86.spa
dcterms.references45. Rockett, J.; Ramsey, D. Resident perceptions of rural tourism development: The case of Fogo Island and Change Islands, Newfoundland, Canada. J. Tour. Cult. Chang. 2017, 15, 299–318.spa
dcterms.references46. Kastenholz, E.; Carneiro, M.; Marques, C.; Lima, J. Understanding and managing the rural tourism experience–The case of a historical village in Portugal. Tour. Manag. Perspect. 2012, 4, 207–214.spa
dcterms.references47. Gannon, A. Rural tourism as a factor in rural community economic development for economies in transition. J. Sustain. Tour. 1994, 2, 51–60.spa
dcterms.references48. Lane, B.; Kastenholz, E. Rural tourism: The evolution of practice and research approache-towards a new generation concept? J. Sustain. Tour. 2015, 23, 1133–1156.spa
dcterms.references49. Hall, C.M. Editorial: Pro-poor tourism: Do ‘tourism exchanges benefit primarily the nations of the South’? Curr. Issues Tour. 2007, 10, 111–118.spa
dcterms.references50. Müller, D.K.; Jansson, B. The difficult business of making pleasure peripheries prosperous: Perspectives on space, place and environment. In Tourism in Peripheries: Perspectives from the Far North and South; Muller, D.K., Jansson, B., Eds.; CABI: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 3–18.spa
dcterms.references51. Fuller, D.; Buultjens, J.; Cummings, E. Ecotourism and indigenous micro-enterprise formation in northern Australia opportunities and constraints. Tour. Manag. 2005, 26, 891–904.spa
dcterms.references52. Salvatore, R.; Chiodo, E.; Fantini, A. Tourism transition in peripheral rural areas: Theories, issues and strategies. Ann. Tour. Res. 2018, 68, 41–51.spa
dcterms.references53. Brown, F.; Hall, D.; Eds. Tourism in Peripheral Areas: Case Studies; Channel View: Clevedon, UK, 2000.spa
dcterms.references54. Botterill, D.; Owen, R.E.; Emanuel, L.; Foster, N.; Gale, T.; Nelson, C.; Selby, M. Perceptions from the periphery: The experience of Wales. In Tourism in Peripheral Areas: Case Studies; Brown, F., Hall, D., Eds.; Channel View Publications: Clevedon, UK, 2002; pp. 7–38.spa
dcterms.references55. Timothy, D.J.; White, K. Community-based ecotourism development on the periphery of Belize. Curr. Issues Tour. 1999, 2, 226–242.spa
dcterms.references56. Albrecht, J.N. Challenges in tourism strategy implementation in peripheral destinations–The case of Stewart Island, New Zealand. Tour. Hosp. Plan. Dev. 2010, 7, 91–110.spa
dcterms.references57. Creswell, J.W. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches; Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2013.spa
dcterms.references58. Kneafsey, M. Tourism, place identities and social relations in the European rural periphery. Eur. Urban Reg. Stud. 2000, 7, 35–50.spa
dcterms.references59. Gascón, J. The limitations of community-based tourism as an instrument of development cooperation: The value of the Social Vocation of the Territory concept. J. Sustain. Tour. 2013, 21, 716–731.spa
dcterms.references60. Ngo, T.; Lohmann, G.; Hales, R. Collaborative marketing for the sustainable development of community-based tourism enterprises: Voices from the field. J. Sustain. Tour. 2018, 26, 1325–1343.spa
dcterms.references61. Walter, P. Gender analysis in community-based ecotourism. Tour. Recreat. Res. 2011, 36, 159–168.spa
dcterms.references62. Bhatnagar, B.; Williams, A.C. Participatory Development and the World Bank: Potential Directions for Change; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 1992.spa
dcterms.references63. United Nations. Popular Participation in Decision Making for Development; United Nations: New York, NY, USA, 1975.spa
dcterms.references64. Saxena, G.; Ilbery, B. Integrated rural tourism. A border case study. Ann. Tour. Res. 2008, 35, 233–254.spa
dcterms.references65. Borges Lima, I.; d'Hauteserre, A.M. Community capitals and ecotourism for enhancing Amazonian forest livelihoods. Anatolia 2011, 22, 184–203.spa
dcterms.references66. Clements, T.; John, A.; Nielsen, K.; Vicheka, C.; Sokha, E.; Piseth, M. Translinks Case Study: Tmatboey Community-Based Ecotourism Project, Cambodia; Wildlife Conservation Society TransLinks Program: Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2008.spa
dcterms.references67. Cobbinah, P.B.; Black, R.; Thwaites, R. Ecotourism implementation in the Kakum Conservation Area, Ghana: Administrative framework and local community experiences. J. Ecotourism 2015, 14, 223–242.spa
dcterms.references68. Dyer, P.; Aberdeen, L.; Schuler, S. Tourism impacts on an Australian indigenous community: A Djabugay case study. Tour. Manag. 2003, 24, 83–95.spa
dcterms.references69. Keyim, P. Tourism Collaborative Governance and Rural Community Development in Finland: The Case of Vuonislahti. J. Travel Res. 2018, 57, 483–494.spa
dcterms.references70. Macleod, D. Tourism, Globalisation and Cultural Change: An Island Community Perspective; Channel View Publications: Clevedon, UK, 2004.spa
dcterms.references71. Isaac, M.; Wuleka, K. Community-based ecotourism and livelihood enhancement in Sirigu, Ghana. Int. J. Humanit. Soc. Sci. 2012, 2, 97–108.spa
dcterms.references72. Jamieson, W.; Sunalai, P. Sustainable tourism planning and management in Klong Khwang, Thailand. In Innovative Communities: People-Centred Approaches to Environmental Management in the Asia-Pacific Region; Velasquez, J., Ed.; United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan, 2005; pp. 158–181.spa
dcterms.references73. Kontogeorgopoulos, N.; Churyen, A.; Duangsaeng, V. Success factors in community-based tourism in Thailand: The role of luck, external support, and local leadership. Tour. Plan. Dev. 2014, 11, 106–124.spa
dcterms.references74. Nguangchaiyapoom, S.; Yongvanit, S.; Sripun, M. Community-based tourism management of Ban Prasat, Non Sung District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Manutsat Sangkomsaat Humanit. Soc. Sci. 2012, 29, 191–207.spa
dcterms.references75. Sundjaya Mangrove conservation through ecotourism development by the Bobongko people in the Togean Islands, Indonesia. In Innovative Communities: People-Centred Approaches to Environmental Management in the Asia-Pacific Region; Velasquez, J., Ed.; United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan, 2005; pp. 182–203.spa
dcterms.references76. Valaoras, G.; Pistolas, K.; Sotriopoulou, H.Y. Ecotourism revives rural communities-The case of the Dadia Forest Reserve, Evros, Greece. Mt. Res. Dev. 2002, 22, 123–127.spa
dcterms.references77. Nelson, F. The evolution and impacts of community-based ecotourism in northern Tanzania.In Issue Paper; International Institute for Environment and Development: London, UK, 2004.spa
dcterms.references78. Müller, D.K.; Huuva, S.K. Limits to Sami tourism development: The case of Jokkmokk, Sweden. J. Ecotourism 2009, 8, 115–127.spa
dcterms.references79. Weinberg, A.; Bellows, S.; Ekster, D. Sustaining ecotourism: Insights and implications from two successful case studies. Soc. Nat. Resour. 2002, 15, 371–380.spa
dcterms.references80. Trau, A.M.; Bushell, R. Tourism and indigenous peoples. In Tourism, Recreation and Sustainability: Linking Culture and the Environment; McCool, S.F., Moisey, R.N., Eds.; CABI: Wallingford, UK, 2008; pp. 260–282.spa
dcterms.references81. Hall, C.M.; Boyd, S. Nature-based tourism in peripheral areas: Introduction. In Nature-Based Tourism in Peripheral Areas: Development or Disaster?; Hall, C.M., Boyd, S., Eds.; Channel View: Clevedon, UK, 2005; pp. 3–17.spa
dcterms.references82. Monaghan, P. Going for Wombat-Transformations in Wirangu and the Scotdesco Community on the Far West Coast of South Australia. Oceania 2012, 82, 45–61.spa
dcterms.references83. Strickland-Munro, J.; Moore, S. Indigenous involvement and benefits from tourism in protected areas: A study of Purnululu National Park and Warmun Community, Australia. J. Sustain. Tour. 2013, 21, 26– 41.spa
dcterms.references84. Anand, A.; Chandan, P.; Singh, R.B. Homestays at Korzok: Supplementing rural livelihoods and supporting green tourism in the Indian Himalayas. Mt. Res. Dev. 2012, 32, 126–136.spa
dcterms.references85. Cole, S. Information and empowerment: The keys to achieving sustainable tourism. J. Sustain. Tour. 2006, 14, 629–644.spa
dcterms.references86. Collins, S.; Snel, H. A perspective on community based tourism from South Africa: The TRANSFORM Programme, 1996–2007. In Responsible Tourism: Critical Issues for Conservation and Development; Spenceley, A., Ed.; Earthscan: London, UK, 2008; pp. 85–106.spa
dcterms.references87. Giampiccoli, A.; Jugmohan, S.; Mtapuri, O. International cooperation, community-based tourism and capacity building: Results from a Mpondoland village in South Africa. Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci. 2014, 5, 657– 667.spa
dcterms.references88. Grieves, M.; Adler, M.; King, R. To preserve the mountains and the community: Indigenous ecotourism as a sustainable development strategy. Soc. Thought Res. 2014, 33, 83–111.spa
dcterms.references89. Hashimoto, A.; Telfer, D. Female empowerment through agritourism in rural Japan. In Tourism and Agriculture: New Geographies of Consumption, Production and Rural Restructuring; Torres, R.M., Momsen, J.H., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2011; pp. 72–83.spa
dcterms.references90. Ramos, A.M.; Prideaux, B. Indigenous ecotourism in the Mayan rainforest of Palenque: Empowerment issues in sustainable development. J. Sustain. Tour. 2013, 22, 461–479.spa
dcterms.references91. Prachvuthy, M. Tourism, poverty, and income distribution: Chambok community-based ecotourism development, Kirirom National Park, Kompong Speu Province, Cambodia. J. Greater Mekong Subreg. Dev. Stud. 2006, 3, 25–40.spa
dcterms.references92. Rozemeijer, N. Community-Based Tourism in Botswana: The SNV Experience in 3 Community Tourism Projects; SNV/IUCN CBNRM Support Programme: Gaborone, Botswana, 2000.spa
dcterms.references93. Sebele, L.S. Community-based tourism ventures, benefits and challenges: Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Central District, Botswana. Tour. Manag. 2010, 31, 136–146.spa
dcterms.references94. Verbole, A. Actors, discourses and interfaces of rural tourism development at the local community level in Slovenia: Social and political dimensions of the rural tourism development process. J. Sustain. Tour. 2000, 8, 479–490.spa
dcterms.references95. Wang, C.C.; Cater, C.; Low, T. Political challenges in community-based ecotourism. J. Sustain. Tour. 2016, 24, 1555–1568.spa
dcterms.references96. Novelli, M.; Gebhardt, K. Community based tourism in Namibia: ‘Reality show’ or ’window dressing’? Curr. Issues Tour. 2007, 10, 443–479.spa
dcterms.references97. Stone, L.S.; Stone, T.M. Communitybased tourism enterprises: Challenges and prospects for community participation; Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Botswana. J. Sustain. Tour. 2011, 19, 97–114.spa
dcterms.references98. Chili, N.S.; Ngxongo, N.A. Challenges to active community involvement in tourism development at Didima Resort: A case study of Umhlwazini community in Bergville. Afr. J. Hosp. Tour. Leis. 2017, 6, 1– 15.spa
dcterms.references99. Marzuki, A.; Hay, I.; James, J. Public participation shortcomings in tourism planning: The case of the Langkawi Islands, Malaysia. J. Sustain. Tour. 2012, 20, 585–602.spa
dcterms.references100. Sharpley, R.; Telfer, D.J. Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues; Channel View Publications: Clevendon, UK, 2002.spa
dcterms.references101. Getz, D.; Jamieson, W. Rural tourism in Canada: Issues, opportunities and entrepreneurship in aboriginal tourism in Alberta. In The Business of Rural Tourism: International Perspectives; Page, S., Getz, D., Eds.; International Thomson Business Press: London, UK, 1997; pp. 93–107.spa
dcterms.references102. Bramwell, B.; Lane, B. Sustainable tourism and the evolving roles of government planning. J. Sustain. Tour. 2010, 18, 1–5.spa
dcterms.references103. Yanes, A.; Zielinski, S.; Díaz Cano, M.; Kim, S.I. Community-based tourism in developing nations: A framework for policy evaluation. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2506.spa
dcterms.references104. Ruhanen, L. Local government: Facilitator or inhibitor of sustainable tourism development? J. Sustain. Tour. 2013, 21, 80–98.spa
dcterms.references105. Ritchie, J.R.; Crouch, G.I. The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective; CABI Publishing: Cambridge, UK, 2003.spa
dcterms.references106. Charnley, S. From nature tourism to Ecotourism? The case of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Hum. Organ. 2005, 64, 75–88.spa
dcterms.references107. Ogutu, Z.A. The impact of ecotourism on livelihood and natural resource management in Eselenkei, Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya. Land Degrad. Dev. 2002, 13, 251–256.spa
dcterms.references108. Berry, T. Nuvinak Island, Alaska. In Extreme Tourism: Lessons from the World’s Cold Water Islands; Baldacchino, G., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006; pp. 64–73.spa
dcterms.references109. Ruiz-Ballesteros, E.; Caceres-Feria, R. Community-building and amenity migration in community-based tourism development. An approach from southwest Spain. Tour. Manag. 2016, 54, 513–523.spa
dcterms.references110. Silva, L. How ecotourism works at the community-level: The case of whale-watching in the Azores. Curr. Issues Tour. 2015, 18, 196–211.spa
dcterms.references111. Fletcher, C.; Pforr, C.; Brueckner, M. Factors influencing Indigenous engagement in tourism development: An international perspective. J. Sustain. Tour. 2016, 24, 1100–1120.spa
dcterms.references112. Nilsson, P.A. Tourism’s role in new rural policy for peripheral areas: The case of Arjeplog. In Tourism in Peripheral Areas: Case Studies; Brown, F., Hall, D., Eds.; Channel View: Clevedon, UK, 2000; pp. 133–151.spa
dcterms.references113. Bramwell, B. Governance, the state and sustainable tourism: A political economy approach. J. Sustain. Tour. 2011, 19, 459–477.spa
dcterms.references114. Bruyere, B.L.; Beh, A.W.; Lelengula, G. Differences in perceptions of communication, tourism benefits, and management issues in a protected area of rural Kenya. Environ. Manag. 2009, 43, 49–59.spa
dcterms.references115. Lenao, M. Challenges facing community-based cultural tourism development at Lekhubu Island, Botswana: A comparative analysis. Curr. Issues Tour. 2015, 18, 579–594.spa
dcterms.references116. Reimer, J.K.; Walter, P. How do you know it when you see it? Community-based ecotourism in the Cardamom Mountains of southwestern Cambodia. Tour. Manag. 2013, 34, 122–132.spa
dcterms.references117. Coria, J.; Calfucura, E. Ecotourism and the development of indigenous communities: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Ecol. Econ. 2012, 73, 47–55.spa
dcterms.references118. Jitpakdee, R.; Thapa, G.B. Sustainability analysis of ecotourism on Yao Noi Island, Thailand. Asia Pac. J. Tour. Res. 2012, 17, 301–325.spa
dcterms.references119. Nepal, S.K. Indigenous ecotourism in central British Columbia: The potential for building capacity in the Tl'azt'en nations territories. J. Ecotourism 2004, 3, 173–194.spa
dcterms.references120. Moswete, N.; Thapa, B.; Child, B. Attitudes and opinions of local and national public sector stakeholders towards Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Botswana. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol. 2012, 19, 67–80.spa
dcterms.references121. Avila Foucat, V.S. Community-based ecotourism management moving towards sustainability, in Ventanilla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Ocean Coast. Manag. 2002, 45, 511–529.spa
dcterms.references122. Colvin, J.G. Capirona: A model of indigenous ecotourism. J. Sustain. Tour. 1994, 2, 174–177.spa
dcterms.references123. Lepp, A. Residents’ attitudes towards tourism in Bigodi village, Uganda. Tour. Manag. 2007, 28, 876–885.spa
dcterms.references124. Somarriba-Chang, M.; Gunnarsdotter, Y. Local community participation in ecotourism and conservation issues in two nature reserves in Nicaragua. J. Sustain. Tour. 2012, 20, 1025–1043.spa
dcterms.references125. Stronza, A. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon. Int. J. Commons 2010, 4, 56–77.spa
dcterms.references126. Zanotti, L.; Chernela, J. Conflicting cultures of nature: Ecotourism, education and the Kayapó of the Brazilian Amazon. Tour. Geogr. 2008, 10, 495–521.spa
dcterms.references127. Casey, R. Defining the local: The development of an ‘environment culture’ in a Clare Village. In Irish Tourism: Image, Culture and Identity; Cronin, M., O’Connor, B., Eds.; Channel View: Clevedon Hall, UK, 2003; pp. 42–60.spa
dcterms.references128. George, E.W.; Mair, H.; Reid, D.G. Rural Tourism Development: Localism and Cultural Change; Channel View Publications: Bristol, UK, 2009.spa
dcterms.references129. Waldren, J. We are not tourists–We live here. In Tourists and Tourism: Identifying with People and Places; Abram, S., Waldren, J.D., Macleod, D.V.L., Eds.; Oxford International: Oxford, UK; New York, NY, USA, 1997; pp. 51–70.spa
dcterms.references130. Jamal, T.B.; Stronza, A. Collaboration theory and tourism practice in protected areas: Stakeholders, structuring and sustainability. J. Sustain. Tour. 2009, 17, 169–189.spa
dcterms.references131. Lapeyre, R. Community-based tourism as a sustainable solution to maximise impacts locally? The Tsiseb Conservancy case, Namibia. Dev. S. Afr. 2010, 27, 757–772.spa
dcterms.references132. Mitchell, R.E.; Eagles, P.F.J. An integrative approach to tourism: Lessons from the Andes of Peru. J. Sustain. Tour. 2001, 9, 4–28.spa
dcterms.references133. Ateljevic, I.; Doorne, S. Unpacking the local: A cultural analysis of tourism entrepreneurship in Murter, Croatia. Tour. Geogr. 2003, 5, 123–150.spa
dcterms.references134. Forde, A. From fishing industry to ‘fish porn’: Tourism transforming place. In Sustainable Tourism in Rural Europe: Approaches to Development; Macleod, D.V.L., Gillespie, S.A., Eds.; Routledge: Oxon, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2011; pp. 196–209.spa
dcterms.references135. Marsh, S.; Barre, d.l.S. Bank Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. In Extreme Tourism: Lessons from the World’s Cold Water Islands; Baldacchino, G., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006; pp. 75–86.spa
dcterms.references136. Vafadari, K.; Cooper, M.; Nakamura, K. Rural tourism and regional revitalization in Japan: A spotlight on Satoyama. In Rural Tourism: An International Perspective; Dashper, K., Ed.; Cambridge Scholars: Newcastle, UK, 2014; pp. 337–360.spa
dcterms.references137. Colton, J.; Harris, S. Indigenous ecotourism’s role in community development: The case of the Lennox Island First Nation. In Tourism and Indigenous Peoples: Issues and Implications; Butler, R., Hinch, R., Eds.; Elsevier: Oxford, UK; Burlington, MA, USA, 2007; pp. 220–233.spa
dcterms.references138. Hiwasaki, L. Community-based tourism: A pathway to sustainability for Japan's protected areas. Soc. Nat. Resour. 2006, 19, 675–692.spa
dcterms.references139. Iorio, M.; Corsale, A. Communitybased tourism and networking: Viscri, Romania. J. Sustain. Tour. 2014, 22, 234–255.spa
dcterms.references140. Matarrita-Cascante, D.; Luloff, A. E, Krannich, R.S.; Field, D.R. Community participation in rapidly growing communities in Southern Utah. Community Dev. 2006, 37, 71–87.spa
dcterms.references141. Matarrita-Cascante, D.; Stocks, G. Amenity migration to the global south: Implications for community development. Geoforum 2013, 49, 91–102.spa
dcterms.references142. Coles, T.; Scherle, N. Prosecuting power: Tourism, inter-cultural communications and the tactics of empowerment. In Tourism, Power and Space, 1st ed.; Church, A., Coles, T., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK, 2007.spa
dcterms.references143. Kopper, E. Multicultural workgroups and project teams. In Interkulturelles Management; Bergemann, N., Sourisseaux, A., Eds.; Physica: Heidelberg, Germany, 1992; pp. 229–251.spa
dcterms.references144. Matarrita-Cascante, D.; Brennan, M. Conceptualizing community development in the 21st century. Community Dev. 2012, 43, 293–305.spa
dcterms.references145. Wilkinson, K.P. The Community in Rural America; Social Ecology Press: Middletown, WI, USA; 1991.spa
dcterms.references146. Mitchell, J.; Muckosy, P. A Misguided Quest: Community-Based Tourism in Latin America; ODI: London, UK, 2008.spa
dcterms.references147. Zielinski, S.; Jeong, Y.J.; Milanés, C. Factors that influence community-based tourism (CBT) in developing and developed countries. Tourism Geographies 2020, in press.spa
dcterms.references148. Carson, D.A. Challenges and opportunities for rural tourism geographies: A view from the 'boring' peripheries. Tour. Geogr. 2018, 20, 738–742.spa
dcterms.references149. Amati, C. “We all voted for it”: Experiences of participation in community-based ecotourism from the foothills of Mt Kilimanjaro. J. East. Afr. Stud. 2013, 7, 650–670.spa
dcterms.references150. Belsky, J.M. Misrepresenting communities: The politics of community-based rural ecotourism in Gales Point Manatee, Belize. Rural Sociol. 1999, 64, 641–666.spa
dcterms.references151. Hitchner, S.L.; Apu, F.L.; Tarawe, L.; Aran, S.G.N.; Yesaya, E. Community-based transboundary ecotourism in the heart of Borneo: A case study of the Kelabit Highlands of Malaysia and the Kerayan Highlands o Indonesia. J. Ecotourism 2009, 8, 193–213.spa
dcterms.references152. Jones, S. Community-based ecotourism: The significance of social capital. Ann. Tour. Res. 2005, 32, 303– 324.spa
dcterms.references153. Kim, S.; Park, E.; Phandanouvong, T. Barriers to local residents’ participation in community-based tourism: Lessons from Houay Kaeng village in Laos. SHS Web Conf. 2014, 12, 1–8.spa
dcterms.references154. Knight, D.W.; Cottrell, S.P. Evaluating tourism-linked empowerment in Cuzco, Peru. Ann. Tour. Res. 2016, 56, 32–47.spa
dcterms.references155. Matarrita-Cascante, D.; Brennan, M.A.; Luloff, A.E. Community agency and sustainable tourism development: The case of La Fortuna, Costa Rica. J. Sustain. Tour. 2010, 18, 735–756.spa
dcterms.references156. Moswete, N.; Thapa, B.; Lacey, G. Village-based tourism and community participation: A case study of the Matsheng villages in southwest Botswana. In Sustainable Tourism in Southern Africa: Local Communities and Natural Resources in Transition; Saarinen, J., Becker, F., Manwa, H., Wilson, D., Eds.; Channelview: Clevedon, UK, 2009; pp. 189–209.spa
dcterms.references157. Nyaupane, G.P.; Morais, D.B.; Dowler, L. The role of community involvement and number/type of visitors on tourism impacts: A controlled comparison of Annapurna, Nepal and Northwest Yunnan, China. Tour. Manag. 2006, 27, 1373–1385.spa
dcterms.references158. Paimin, N.F.V.; Modilih, S.; Mogindol, S.H.; Johnny, C.; Thamburaj, J.A. Community participation and barriers in rural tourism: A case study in Kiulu, Sabah. Web Conf. 2014, 12, 1–7.spa
dcterms.references159. Pawson, S.; D'Arcy, P.; Richardson, S. The value of community-based tourism in Banteay Chhmar, Cambodia. Tour. Geogr. 2017, 19, 378–397.spa
dcterms.references160. Ellis, S. Community Based Tourism in Cambodia: Exploring the Role of Community for Successful Implementation in Least Developed Countries. Ph.D. Thesis, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia, 2011, Available online: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/451(accessed on 16 October 2019).spa
dcterms.references161. Southgate, C.R.J. Ecotourism in Kenya: The vulnerability of communities. J. Ecotourism 2006. 5, 80–96.spa
dcterms.references162. Wunder, S. Promoting forest conservation through ecotourism income? A case study from the Ecuadorian Amazon region. In Occasional Paper; Center for International Forestry Research: Jakarta, Indonesia, 1999.spa
dcterms.references163. Yeboah, T. Assessing community participation in selected ecotourism projects in the Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana. J. Ecol. Nat. Environ. 2013, 5, 133–143.spa
dcterms.references164. Butler, R.W. Understanding the place of bird watching in the countryside: Lessons from Fair Isle. In Rural Tourism: An International Perspective; Dashper, K., Ed.; Cambridge Scholars: Newcastle, UK, 2014; pp. 322–336.spa
dcterms.references165. Idziak, W.; Majewski, J. Zmyślony, P. Community participation in sustainable rural tourism experience creation: A long-term appraisal and lessons from a thematic villages project in Poland. J. Sustain. Tour. 2015, 23, 1341–1362.spa
dcterms.references166. Milne, S.; Ward, S.; Wenzel, G. Linking tourism and art in Canada’s eastern Arctic: The case of Cape Dorset. Polar Rec. 1995, 31, 25–36.spa
dcterms.references167. Otterstad, O.; Capota, P.A.; Simion, A. Beluga Sturgeon Community Based Tourism (Best Combat). J. Coast. Res. 2011, 183–193.spa
dcterms.references168. Tsaur, S.H.; Lin, Y.C.; Lin, J.H. Evaluating ecotourism sustainability from the integrated perspective of resource, community and tourism. Tour. Manag. 2006, 27, 640–653.spa
dcterms.references169. Wiltshier, P.; Cardow, A. Extreme Tourism: Lessons from the World’s Cold Water Islands; Baldacchino, G., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006; pp. 205–216spa
dc.rights.accessrightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessspa
dc.identifier.doidoi:10.3390/su12155938
dc.type.hasversioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersionspa


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

CC0 1.0 Universal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as CC0 1.0 Universal