Crisis migratoria de venezolanos en el departamento de la Guajira y su impacto socioeconómico durante el periodo 2012 – 2017
Rosado Atencio, Giohanna Janine Del Carmen
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AbstractIn the last decade, the massive flows of the Venezuelan population to Colombian territory stopped being a novelty to become a social and economic phenomenon and the highest migration in the entire history of Colombia. The difficult political situation that Venezuela is going through is the main cause of the departure of Venezuelans from their country. In this sense, it should be noted that Colombia shares 2,219 km of territory with Venezuela, and thanks to their strong historical relationship, these two countries have a strong bond, which makes the ColombianVenezuelan border one of the most dynamic in Latin America. According to figures from Migration Colombia, in 2012, 262 thousand Venezuelans entered the country, 40 thousand more than in 2011 and 205 thousand more than in 1999 and for the year 2017 the figures are close to one million people. It should be noted that La Guajira is one of the departments with the highest poverty rates in the country, according to the annual technical bulletin reported by the National Administrative Department of Statistics "DANE" for 2017. The national rate was 26, 9%, while La Guajira reached an incidence of 52.6%. However, La Guajira receives daily through its border (Paraguachon), around 1,500 Venezuelans whose destination is the municipalities of Maicao, Uribía, Manaure and Riohacha. (National Administrative Department of Statistics "DANE" 2017). This massive flow of Venezuelans has generated that municipalities such as Riohacha and Maicao, where most of this population is concentrated and who go "in search of a job opportunity," end up affecting the social and economic structure of these municipalities and the department. The majority of Venezuelans who come to the Department of La Guajira seek to engage in informal activities: street sales, masonry, sexual services, jobs in restaurants and beauty salons, the same with low-cost labor, which generates an imbalance for the inhabitants of the region, exacerbating the lack of job opportunities added to the high levels of unemployment that the Department has historically accused. It is not a secret that the majority of Venezuelan immigrants who enter the department do so illegally and do not have any social security, so eventually, they end up being a burden for the Colombian health system and generating an internal public health crisis , a situation that is replicated in the same way in the coverage issues with regard to education. The strong migration acceleration of Venezuelans to La Guajira has generated great concern for the local authorities and the police force due to the high levels of insecurity and crime that continue to escalate and impact the security and coexistence of the municipalities of the northeastern Colombian border. In addition, there has been a collapse in the municipalities due to the large flow of Venezuelans invading public space.