Remoción de compuestos nitrogenados de aguas residuales municipales usando un consorcio bacteriano
Márquez Fontalvo, Nubia P.
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AbstractThe fulfillment of the sustainable development objective (SDO) number six "Clean Water and Sanitation" is a global challenge in both developed and developing countries. Water pollution impairs economic growth and the physical and environmental health of billions of people. According to the world health organization (WHO), two million tons of wastewater are discharged into the environment annually without prior treatment. Therefore, the integrated management of water resources is a requirement for environmental preservation and economic development, the removal of nutrients being one of the main drawbacks. Unfortunately, global nitrogen discharge has increased due to intensification of agriculture, high levels of atmospheric deposition, and increased residual per capita discharge due to changes in the population's diet. In this work, the efficiency of a bacterial consortium (Ecobacter WP) consisting of 8 bacterial strains of the genus Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cerus, Arthorbacter sp, Acinetobacter paraffineus, Corynebacterium sp, Streptomyces globisporus; for the removal of nitrogen compounds in domestic wastewater in a plug flow system, extended aeration and bioaugmentation (FLAEBI). In order to promote the nitrification and denitrification processes, three treatments were tested to establish the optimal concentration of the bacterial consortium at laboratory scale and its subsequent application in a wastewater treatment plant (PTARD) under outdoor conditions. The evaluation period was 15 days for each treatment in the laboratory and PTARD. The physicochemical parameters monitored both at laboratory and real scale were pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and removal of COD, BOD5, ammonium, nitrites, and nitrates. The results indicated that the optimal concentration of the consortium was 30 mg / L, with a removal percentage of 92% of nitrate on a laboratory scale and 62% on a real scale, a difference that is attributed to the mode of operation that gave rise to different residence times, volume ratios that caused different concentration gradients, in addition to the different construction materials (fiberglass for laboratory scale and concrete for real scale) that can influence the stability of the flows. The consortium studied can be used to promote nitrification and denitrification processes that intervene in the removal of nitrogen compounds in plants with similar operating conditions, without investment in restructuring or design modification of the PTARD.