Proceso de jerarquía analítica difusa para la toma de decisiones de suministro eléctrico en áreas rurales no interconectadas en la región caribe colombiana
Moreno Rocha, Christian Manuel
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AbstractIn the development of this research, the implementation of renewable energies in rural areas not interconnected (ZNI) to the network is analyzed and studied, mainly 6 alternatives or technologies that implement renewable resources for the generation of electric energy are analyzed. The implementation of a multi-criteria methodology (MCDM) is proposed, which helps in the best selection of renewable energy generation system in rural areas and ZNI, the methodology used is applied to the use of renewable energies in rural areas and areas not interconnected to the grid, since it is one of the most used methods within a process of better choice, as well as for energy decision making. The Fuzzy Analytical Fuzzy Hierarchical Process (FAHP) is applied, whose data are obtained by means of a survey to a group of experts, with the only purpose of reducing any imprecision on the part of the decision maker, in addition this method applies fuzzy logic to eliminate the indifference or subjectivity of the judgments delivered by the decision makers. The generation and supply of electricity to the rural population with a high degree of basic needs in developing countries such as Colombia is a complex task that goes beyond the simple selection of the best technology. This research explains the results achieved by using a decision support system of multiple criteria and sub-criteria to help calculate the most appropriate energy source of energy options to provide sufficient energy to meet local demands that improve livelihoods. Complexity in decision making has always been present in the daily life of every human being, sometimes causing a conflict in selecting in our judgment the one that best meets the specific needs of a problem situation. This is where multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods should be applied when the decision maker has a decision problem situation in front of a set of multiple options. The research is carried out by interviewing different actors, who presented their knowledge about the characteristic of a particular technology. In order to find the best solution among a set of alternatives, an assessment of the different technologies is made with the help of a group of experts. To solve this type of problem, the valuation method must offer an advantage over other multi-criteria decision methods. It is always advisable to decompose the problem situation into parts to achieve a better understanding and comprehension. This research was divided into 4 chapters. Chapter I presents a brief explanation about the delimitation of the Caribbean region, the problem statement, the justification of this research, the objectives and the scope of this research. Chapter II contains the theoretical foundation related to renewable energies, the basic concepts related to multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), as well as the proposed fuzzy methodology. Chapter III applies the methodology proposed for the analysis proposed in this study. Chapter IV presents the results and conclusions, and ends with the bibliography and the respective annexes. The results obtained from the development of the FAHP methodology indicate that the most attractive renewable energy for the study area of this research is obtained by means of photovoltaic solar energy, followed by wind energy and in third place by biogas generation. Thus demonstrating that the own resources that the rural area of the department of Atlántico has could be used as raw material to produce electric energy, substantially improving the quality of life of each of the people in these areas, in addition to reducing the excessive use of fossil fuels and gas emissions.