Forecasting and communication key elements for low-cost fluvial flooding early warning system in urban areas
Artículo de revista
Fluvial flooding occurs when a river overspills its banks due to excessive rainfall, and it is the most common flood event. In urban areas, the increment of urbanization makes communities more susceptible to fluvial flooding since the excess of impervious surfaces reduced the natural permeable areas. As flood prevention strategies, early warning systems (EWS) are used to reduce damage and protect people, but key elements need to be selected. This manuscript proposes the monitoring instruments, communication protocols, and media to forecast and disseminate EWS alerts efficiently during fluvial floods in urban areas. First, we conducted a systematic review of different EWS architectures for fluvial floods in urban areas and identified that not all projects monitor the most important variables related to the formation of fluvial floods and most use communication protocols with high-energy consumption.ZigBee and LoRaWAN are the communication protocols with lower power consumption from the review, and to determine which technology has better performance in urban areas, two wireless sensor networks were deployed and simulated in two urban areas susceptible to fluvial floods using Radio Mobile software. The results showed that although Zigbee technology has better-received signal strength, the difference with LoRAWAN is lower than 2dBm, but LoRaWAN has a better signal-to-noise ratio, power consumption, coverage, and deployment cost.
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