Estructura de la macro, meso y microfauna del suelo y su relación con parámetros de calidad del suelo en unidades agrícolas del norte de Colombia: implicaciones ecológicas
Chamorro Martínez, Yiseth Paola | 2022
In order to define strategies in the sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils, this research assessed the soil biodiversity (macrofauna, mesofauna, and microfauna) in the soil of agricultural units in northern Colombia. The study was carried out in 200 agricultural production units in the department of Sucre, in northern Colombia. The physicochemical characteristics organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH were determined in the laboratory for each soil sample. To determine the composition of the macrofauna and mesofauna, the Berlesse-Tullgren method was used and for the microfauna the sown surface plate count method. The biodiversity of the communities was quantified with diversity indices and a Pearson correlation was carried out to determine the relationships between the soil fauna and the soil quality parameters. In the macrofauna, a total of 1330 individuals were found, distributed in 22 orders and 65 families; the families Tenebrionidae, Formicidae, Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Julide presented the highest abundance and distribution. In the mesofauna a total of 1171 individuals were found, distributed in the classes Arachnida with 7 families and Collembola with 4 families; the Scheloribatidae, Isotomidae and Galumnidae families presented the highest abundance and distribution. The indices of richness (S), Shannon-Wiener diversity (H) and Simpson dominance (D) indicated that biodiversity was higher in the macrofauna. Pearson's correlation indicated statistically significant correlations between soil mesofauna with OM (R2 = 0.87, p-value ≤ 0.05) and mesofauna with P (R2 = 0.70, p-value ≤ 0.05). The relationships between fauna and soil chemical variables indicate that soil biological diversity is sensitive to changes in the soil environment. This research revealed the 9
importance of carrying out studies on the three components of the soil fauna (macrofauna, mesofauna and microfauna), since all three contribute to the enrichment of the soil to obtain nourished crops that allow them to survive climate changes. Finally, this research may serve as a baseline to define strategies for sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils.